all as it should be with the car engine? Perhaps it is time to save money on carrying out computer diagnostics, and even on repair? To answer these questions to you some councils of the engineer will help, it is a lot of years engaged in repair of foreign cars.
Before addressing to the doctor, each of us is engaged in self-diagnostics. Thus we do not do ourselves a rentgenoskopiya, we do not use the electrocardiograph and other sophisticated devices. Simply we feel a forehead, we examine a throat, we listen, whether rattles in a breast, whether корежит a waist. From devices traditionally we use thermometers and, maybe, a watch at pulse measurement.
Here so, simply, we define, whether the organism normally functions. And after all it turns out!
The car engine – the same organism. For its exact diagnostics and treatment there are many difficult devices, adaptations and tools. Various techniques and the receptions demanding thin knowledge of the internal device are used. For a start we suggest you to master simpler for understanding of a thing.
Let's try understand, on what it is necessary to pay attention at car operation: that it is necessary to feel where to look, where to listen and, maybe, even to smell, to understand, how the engine feels. Do not want to study together with us – get from a purse one hundred dollars and go on computer diagnostics. Automobile "medical care" paid!
Present that you the kind doctor. Having entered into chamber (garage), approach to the patient (car), surely greet, tell to it some tender, calming words and suggest to undress to a belt (open a cowl). Begin with external survey of the engine. Remember that nothing reflects internal wellbeing how pleasant, well-groomed appearance radiating with health.
Strong general impurity of the engine, no less than existence of intensive local leaks, on the contrary, testifies about reeled health. If in the evening, leaving the car, you providently put on a garage floor under the engine a blank sheet of the newspaper, take out it and examine. Traces of oil and other operational liquids in a night leave traces on which you can establish sources of leaks on the newspaper and define their intensity. The it is higher, the it is rather necessary to take measures for elimination of malfunctions.
The following step – check and finishing to norm of levels of all operational liquids. First of all us engine oil and cooling liquid (antifreeze) as their shortcoming is most strongly reflected in technical characteristics of the engine interest.
It would be desirable to remind and of that (believe, it not a joke) that is necessary to be convinced available fuels of a tank. Practice shows that some inattentive drivers nearly to death torture a starter and the storage battery, having forgotten that before it is necessary to feed and give to drink "good fellow", and then – on a shovel and in the furnace.
At the same time check a tension of belts of a drive of auxiliary units of the engine (the pump of system of cooling, the generator, the pump of the hydraulic booster of a steering, the conditioner). Be convinced that belts do not sag and are not torn off. If everything is all right, shake off trousers and get into the car.
Before engine start-up
Do not hurry up at once to start up the engine. Haste here to anything. In the beginning turn a key in the situation "ignition". As a rule, in this case on the dashboard of all modern cars some control lamps light up. At this stage us two especially interest: the first – a lamp of insufficient pressure of oil in the greasing system, the second – a control lamp of a charge of the storage battery which points to readiness of the generator to get into gear after engine start-up. Both lamps at the included ignition even before start-up of the engine should burn with red light. And if one of them does not burn? If the lamp of a charge of the storage battery was not lit are half-troubles; if the lamp of insufficient pressure of oil in system of greasing does not light up is a disturbing signal. Be attentive, you lost control over greasing system! Pressure of oil in the engine – the main indicator of its serviceability. If you do not supervise pressure of oil, you are threatened by major maintenance of the engine with all that it implies.
The cause of defect consists or in bad contact of sockets of the sensor, or in the sensor. To look for the sensor, as a rule, follows around the oil filter. It is necessary to eliminate malfunction. Only after you were convinced that everything is all right, start up the engine.
The serviceable engine with the adjusted systems of supply of fuel and ignition, the serviceable storage battery is started up from one attempt during 3–5 pages. Stably arising problems with "cold" start-up testify to malfunctions. Let's assume, we avoided it and the engine was started up.
We look at the dashboard. Two lamps about which there was a speech above, are obliged to go out.
If during 5 with a lamp of insufficient pressure of oil in system of greasing continues to burn, stop the engine!
After the lapse of several minutes once again try to start up the engine. In case of lack of pressure of oil it is necessary to look for the malfunction reason.
— low level of oil;
— the sensor of pressure of oil is faulty;
— the grid of a maslopriyemnik of the oil pump is hammered;
— the oil pump is faulty;
— big wear of radical and shatunny bearings of a cranked shaft.
If pressure of oil in norm, we start engine inspection in a warming up mode.
Engine warming up
Frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of not heated-up engine approximately in 1,5 times exceeds passport frequency of rotation of the engine idling, 700–900 mines making usually — 1 (revolutions per minute), and should decrease smoothly in process of growth of temperature of the engine.
After 7–10 mines from the moment of start-up the temperature of the engine should reach level of 80 °C and be stabilized (as well as idling turns).
This process is easy for checking on a tachometer (the device for measurement of frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine) and to the index of temperature of cooling liquid.
When warming up proceeds according to the above described scenario, the system of idling and system of cooling of the engine work normally.
If the temperature of the engine does not reach the necessary level the thermostat (the regulating valve of system of cooling), most likely, is guilty. The reasons of an overheat of the engine much more, and they are reflected in the subsection of the real management describing system of cooling of the engine.
After the engine will enough get warm and turns of idling are stabilized (you learn about it according to indications of control devices), time will come to listen, as "sings" the motor.
Beautiful voice – a healthy organism
Doctors assure that in relation to the person this statement is completely fair. The same it is possible to tell and about the engine.
The serviceable engine publishes a uniform rumble and "ticks", as hours. Some masters say that he "whispers". Despite figurativeness of expressions, you for certain understood that they mean.
If the engine works non-uniformly, with failures, periodically vibrates, know, this testimony of its malfunction. Sometimes
malfunctions – a consequence of wear of details of the engine and compression falling in cylinders, but more often the reasons are a leakage of the inlet path, the littered air filter, failures in work of system of ignition and a power supply system (supply of fuel).
It would be desirable to stop on those cases when the engine as speak, «троит», i.e. does not work one of cylinders.
C help of the diagnostic device method of consecutive shutdown of cylinders to find "saboteur" simply. As soon as you will get on the faulty cylinder, kind of work of the engine will not change.
Often it is possible to define a cause of defect, having examined a spark plug. It allows to learn a lot of the interesting engine about a condition.
It is necessary to mention extraneous noise and knocks. At once we will make a reservation that a similar method of diagnostics – "aerobatics", it on forces at all to all professionals.
Motorists should mean that any sharp metal sounds testify to malfunction. If they are "published" by hinged units (the generator, a pomp (the pump of system of cooling), the hydraulic booster) are half-troubles. To define "responsible" for noise it is possible if consistently to remove belts of a drive of these units. If after removal of the next belt the extraneous sound disappears, shake the corresponding pulley for an assessment of size radial and axial люфта bearings. More often they are disturbers of tranquillity.
With much bigger troubles the knocks which are starting with a belly of the motor threaten. They are listened on various power setting by means of an automobile stethoscope or if it is not present, dry stick in diameter by about 10 mm from firm wood (it press to a cheekbone below an ear lobe). Such way possible to reveal defects of the gas-distributing mechanism, tsilindroporshnevy group, the krivoshipno-shatunny mechanism.
Once again we will emphasize: to make the diagnosis, ear for music insufficiently, it is necessary to have professional experience and excellent knowledge «матчасти».
A sound mind in a sound body
Diagnostic inspection would be incomplete without the analysis of a dymnost of an exhaust of the engine. It is already enough heated-up, so it is a high time to approach to an exhaust pipe and to glance to a horse «under a tail».
The exhaust of the serviceable engine is almost colourless. The exhaust pipe leaves hardly distinguishable easy smoke of the white color which intensity amplifies by sharp pressing a gas pedal.
In frosty weather the serviceable car reserves quite dense clubs of white steam (not to confuse to a smoke!), fuels testifying to full combustion.
Long to inhale exhaust gases it is not necessary. We stop the engine. But it yet ending. It is necessary to survey an internal surface of a stopper of a maslonalivny mouth. Existence of traces on it the made foam emulsion of lurid color – very disturbing symptom speaking about infiltration in system of greasing of cooling liquid. Having uncovered a broad tank, survey appearance of antifreeze.
To avoid a trauma (burn), to do it it is necessary on the cooled-down engine!
Oil film on antifreeze surfaces, just as the made foam engine oil, – harbingers of fast repair of the engine.
Here, perhaps, and all. We completely surveyed "patient", literally «from a nose to a tail tip». Also used at survey not expensive, inaccessible to the majority of motorists the equipment, and that is given us by nature – sight, hearing, sense of smell and, certainly, mysterious «gray substance».
Oily corbel in width of 6-8 mm on an external surface of an exhaust pipe of the car («a mourning rim») – a consequence of the raised consumption of oil. Major maintenance of the engine is inevitable.
Smoke of black color.
Sign of incomplete combustion of fuel. The power supply system prepares very rich mix and needs adjustment.
Smoke of a gray (violet) shade.
Sign of the raised consumption of oil. The engine demands replacement of maslosjemny caps or repair of tsilindroporshnevy group.
Dense white smoke.
Sign of a burn-out of laying of a head of the block of cylinders of the engine. Cooling liquid gets to the combustion chamber.
Smoke with a smell of the fulfilled gases from the removed branch pipe of system of ventilation of a case (сапуна) the engine.
Sign of break of the fulfilled gases in an oil case because of the increased gaps in tsilindroporshnevy group.
"Eats" much, but silently goes
If the engine is badly started up, poorly pulls and spends a lot of fuel – the hitch can appear at all in of what first you think. Simple, apparently, the situation from the point of view of definition of the prime cause is the most artful. Many bravely begin independent search, not
understanding that these manifestations can be a consequence of a number of the reasons, from elementary to rather serious. It is good, if you have a car in which simple and out-of-date technical solutions, – classical "Zhiguli" are used, "Muscovite" and "Volga" – it is possible to address safely to the mechanics having experience in area of repair of similar cars.
But, having replaced the car with more modern, many motorists continue to address to the same masters. And they do not have enough courage to admit that they do not understand the difficult processes occurring in systems of injection of fuel and electronic schemes of ignition. They investigate a spark «on breakdown», damaging thus transistors, isolation of windings of coils of ignition, high-voltage wires and "protorivy" current-carrying paths on covers and rotors of distributors of ignition. Without solving a problem, such mechanics exhaust "illness" inside. And as a result the owner all the same gets to professionally prepared mechanics. Car "treatment", however, already will be considerably complicated.
Experts quite often get to a situation when after long work even with use of difficult devices they manage to understand nothing. Only after a while (sometimes very long) it becomes clear that the previous master - "clever man" changed jets in the carburetor or twisted everything in injection system, eventually broke its tightness or "killed" the pressure sensor.
The list of the possible reasons leading to increased fuel consumption and decrease in engine capacity, is very rich. And except them there is a row uncharacteristic, but serious and quite often meeting malfunctions, such as прогар the piston, fuel hit in oil, failure of one of sensors of temperature of system of injection and the thermostat, a pereputyvaniye of vacuum tubes, destruction of one of laying of the carburetor, piston rings or piston partitions.
Diagnostics is necessary for carrying out without dismantling, the chance only for a while otherwise is great to eliminate a consequence or even to add an existing problem new, sometimes more difficult.
For example, the reasons leading to decrease in capacity of a spark, there is a lot of. If diagnostics is carried out on multipurpose the motor tester, on its screen at once it is possible to define, what shortcoming takes place.
The situation when, having found signs of abnormal operation of the engine is widespread, the motorist goes to the mechanic. That, having measured a compression of the engine and having found compliance to norm, starts to regulate both the carburetor, and ignition system, achieving steady work. Sometimes it is possible. The engine is regularly got, ceases глохнуть, but thus draft and fuel consumption leave much to be desired. In what a mistake?
In the worn-out engine the leakage of epiploons of valves often takes place. Oil getting on pistons leads to artificial compensation of the gaps which have arisen at wear of pistons, rings and cylinders. As a result at measurement of a compression false testimonies turn out. Elimination of this malfunction after the "repair" made by the mechanic, considerably is complicated because of need of restoration of initial adjustments.
The return situation when the owner unfairly "plunge" into major maintenance though would be to replace the same epiploons enough is very widespread also that in ten with superfluous time is cheaper.
Unfortunately, still in the market of maintenance of cars equal division into the stations meeting modern requirements for qualification, technical and cultural service, and on splinters of sadly memorable Soviet car-care center remains approximately. Therefore car owners should familiarize with a technical center on which hole the car will be established attentively. And not so much with cost of services, how many how, than and in what conditions will diagnose and repair the car.