In the present section operations on engine repair, including details of a head of the block of cylinders and the block of cylinders are considered. The recommendations concerning as the organization and preparation of works on repair of the engine, purchase of spare parts, and an operations procedure are included in the section at removal and installation of details of the engine, and also methods of check of a technical condition of details.
The repair work, which carrying out it is possible without removal of the power unit from the car
Without removal of the engine from the car it is possible to execute a set of repair operations. Before the beginning of any works it is desirable to wash out a motor compartment and the engine a water stream. To work with the pure engine it is easier; besides, pollution of internal elements of the engine is prevented.
To expand working space and not to damage a paint and varnish covering of a body, remove a cowl and mudguards.
If there are traces of a leak of oil or the cooling liquid, replacements of laying indicating need, all works are, as a rule, carried out without engine removal. Without removal it is possible to replace laying of the oil pallet, a head of the block of cylinders, laying of inlet and final collectors, forward and back covers, epiploons of a cranked shaft.
Without removal of the engine it is also possible to remove such hinged units, as the pump of cooling liquid, a starter, the generator, the distributor of ignition, inlet and final collectors, the fuel pump and the carburetor.
As the head of the block of cylinders can be removed and without engine removal, repair of the klapanny mechanism is possible.
Without removal it is possible to execute replacement or check of a condition of a gear belt of the gas-distributing mechanism, gear wheels of a drive of a shaft of the gas-distributing mechanism, the oil pump, consolidation of a forward cover of the engine.
In extreme cases when the necessary equipment is absent, without removal of the power unit it is possible to replace piston rings, pistons, rods and shatunny loose leaves, отхонинговать cylinders. However to perform these works without removal of the power unit it is not recommended, as careful cleaning of a number of details and some preparatory work is required.
Major maintenance of the engine
It is not always easy to come to a conclusion about expediency of major maintenance of the engine as it is necessary to be based on a number of signs. Big run is not a sufficient indicator of need of carrying out major maintenance, at the same time small run does not exclude need of major maintenance. Timeliness of carrying out the routine (planned) maintenance of the engine becomes the most important indicator, most likely. At timely replacement of oil and the air filter, performance of all other necessary works on service the engine is capable to serve reliably throughout many thousand kilometers of run. On the contrary, insufficient service can become the reason of sharp reduction of a resource of the engine. The raised consumption of oil indicates wear of piston rings or directing plugs of valves. It is necessary to be convinced that the reason
raised consumption of oil it is covered not in leaks, and only after that to draw a conclusion about unfitness of piston rings and directing plugs.
To define volume of the forthcoming works, measure a compression in cylinders of the engine or check tightness of the chamber of combustion for what it is recommended to address to the skilled expert.
If at operation of the engine the increased noise, knocks is listened, wear of shatunny or radical loose leaves of bearings can be their probable cause.
Turn out the regular sensor of the index of pressure of oil and measure pressure of oil by a manometer, compare the received value with specified in the management. If pressure low, the reason can be wear of radical bearings of a cranked shaft or wear of the oil pump.
Capacity loss, "failures" at operation of the engine, the increased noise from the gas-distributing mechanism, indicate increase in fuel consumption need of carrying out major maintenance, especially if all these factors are shown at the same time. If performance of all adjustments does not lead to improvement, the most expedient means of elimination of the specified malfunctions is repair.
Major maintenance consists in restoration of details of the engine to a condition specified in technical documentation for the new engine. At carrying out major maintenance piston rings are replaced, walls of cylinders are chiseled till next repair size (or хонингуются).
After repair of cylinders installation of new pistons is required also. Shatunnye and radical loose leaves also are subject to replacement, in need of a neck of a cranked shaft follows прошлифовать for restoration of necessary gaps with loose leaves of shatunny and radical bearings. As a rule, the klapanny mechanism is not replaced, as its condition at the moment of repair the quite satisfactory. During major maintenance of the engine repair of the carburetor, the distributor of ignition, a starter and the generator also is carried out. As a result after qualitatively carried out repair the engine should possess qualities of almost new unit and smoothly serve long time.
Before the beginning of major maintenance of the engine familiarize with the description of the corresponding repair procedures approximately to estimate the forthcoming amount of works and requirements to them. Major maintenance is simple, however demands big expenses of time. Roughly not less than two weeks, especially are required if for repair and restoration of details (polishing, boring) it is necessary to address in a specialized workshop. Check existence of spare parts and in advance take care of acquisition of necessary special tools and the equipment.
Almost all works can be executed by means of a standard tool kit though exact measuring devices will be necessary for check and determination of suitability of these or those details. Often check of a condition of details carry out in specialized workshops in which also receive recommendations about replacement or restoration of details.
To address in specialized workshops and at service station, to solve, which operations on service and repair will be carried out in workshops, follows after complete dismantling of the engine and check of all details, especially the block of cylinders.
As a condition of the block of cylinders – a defining factor for making decision on its further repair or purchase of the new or restored block of cylinders to buy spare parts or to perform operations on machining of details follows only after careful check of its technical condition. Make it a rule that the true price of repair is time, then it is not necessary to pay for installation of worn-out or repair details.
In summary we will note that assembly of any units should be carried out very carefully, in a pure room to avoid further failures of the repaired engine.
Major maintenance двигатея: alternatives
At independent performance of major maintenance various options are possible. The decision on replacement of the block of cylinders, shatunno-piston group and a cranked shaft depends on a number of factors, from which most important – a condition of the block of cylinders. Other reasons are repair cost, possibility of receiving access to the equipment of workshops of car-care center, existence of spare parts, time for work and the corresponding experience.
Below some of options of performance of major maintenance are given.
Acquisition of separate spare parts.
If inspection shows that the block of cylinders and the majority of details are in a satisfactory condition and can be used further, purchase of separate spare parts becomes the most expedient from the economic point of view. The block of cylinders, shatunno-piston group and a cranked shaft should be surveyed carefully. Even if insignificant wear of the block of cylinders is found, cylinders are subject to an obligatory honingovaniye.
Cranked shaft of a full complete set.
This repair kit includes a pereshlifovanny cranked shaft and a set of the pistons picked up for the size and rods. Pistons are already established on rods. The set of piston rings, radical and shatunny loose leaves also enters into a set. Pistons usually enter into these sets both standard, and all repair sizes.
Block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set.
The block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set consists of the block of cylinders with the established krivoshipno-shatunny mechanism and piston group. The set includes new radical and shatunny loose leaves, gaps in them correspond to norm. On a set mount an available camshaft, the klapanny mechanism, a head of the block of cylinders and hinged units. Costs of machining are minimum or are not required absolutely.
Block of cylinders of a full complete set.
The block of cylinders of a full complete set contains all set of the block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set, and also the oil pump, the oil pallet, a head of the block of cylinders, a cover of the case of bearings of a camshaft, a camshaft, the klapanny mechanism, gear wheels of a drive of a camshaft, a gear belt and belt covers. All bearings, consolidations and laying new. On a set establish only inlet and final collectors, hinged units.
Carefully think over, what of options most of all suits you. Before purchase of details consult at service station of cars, with sellers of spare parts.