Hyundai Getz>> Engine>> Camshaft and its drive
Features of the device
The camshaft pig-iron, cast, number of support depends on a design of a head of the block of cylinders (such as the engine). Working surfaces of cams and a neck under an epiploon are bleached for increase in wear resistance.
For an exception of axial moving of a camshaft from its back party the flange is provided.
The camshaft drive (irrespective of engine type) is carried out by a gear belt from the gear pulley established on cranked shaft. For a tension of a belt the tension roller on which there are no teeths serves. It rotates on an axis,
established on an arm which fastens to the block of cylinders. Changing the provision of an arm concerning bolts of its fastening, it is possible to change a belt tension.

Replacement of a belt of a drive of a camshaft 
Cars with engines in working volume of 1,1 and 1,3 l 

Fig. 2.52. Drive of a camshaft of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l


Fig. 2.53. Drive of a camshaft of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l


The drive of a camshaft of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l is shown on fig. 2.52 , the engine in working volume of 1,3 l – on fig. 2.53 .
Dismantling of a drive of a camshaft
Unscrew a bolt of fastening of a pulley of the pump of cooling liquid.
Unscrew a bolt of fastening of the generator.
Remove a pulley of the pump of cooling liquid and a drive belt.
Remove a pulley of a cranked shaft.
Uncover a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism.

Fig. 2.54. Adjusting labels on gear to a pulley And a camshaft and a head of the block of cylinders B of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l


Fig. 2.55. Adjusting labels on gear to a pulley of a cranked shaft and the block of cylinders of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l


Fig. 2.56. Adjusting labels on gear to a pulley of a camshaft and a head of the block of cylinders of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l



Fig. 2.57. Adjusting labels on gear to a pulley of a cranked shaft and the block of cylinders engine (pin) in working volume of 1,1 l


Turn of a cranked shaft establish the piston of the 1st cylinder in the provision VMT of the end of a step of compression, thus labels on gear pulleys of distributive and cranked shaft should be combined with adjusting labels on the engine (fig. 2.54, 2.55, 2.56, 2.57) .

Fig. 2.58. Weakening of an inhaling of a bolt of fastening of a tension roller and roller shift to the pump of cooling liquid (the engine in working volume of 1,1 l)


Fig. 2.59. Tension roller of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l


Weaken an inhaling of a bolt of fastening of a tension roller and displace a roller to the pump of cooling liquid. Tighten a bolt of fastening of a roller (fig. 2.58 and 2.59) .
Remove a gear belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism.

PREVENTION
The gear belt should not be bent. It is necessary to replace the bent gear belt, as it can burst in use that will lead to serious damages of the engine.


Fig. 2.60. Shooters showed the direction of rotation of a gear belt


If the belt which was in operation is established, surely it is necessary to consider the direction of its rotation (fig. 2.60) . Belt installation for work "in the opposite direction" can lead to its gap and thereof to serious damages of the engine.
Remove a gear pulley of a camshaft.
Unscrew bolts of fastening of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft.
Remove a tension roller of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism.
Check of a technical condition of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism
Check a belt on a zamaslivaniye and pollution by a dust. If necessary replace a belt. An insignificant zamaslivaniye or pollution by a dust remove with a dry fabric or paper. Solvents to cleaning do not apply.
At a partition of the engine or adjustment of a tension of a belt carefully check a belt condition. Replace a belt new in the presence of at least one of specified below defects.
1. Hardening of an external surface of a belt (the external surface of a belt glossy, not elastic also hardened to such an extent that from pressing a nail does not remain dents).
2. On an external surface of a belt there are cracks.
3. On an internal surface of a belt of a crack or break of teeths.
4. Strong wear of teeths (an initial stage). Wear of the loaded party of teeths (a razlokhmachivaniye of threads of a cord, a wear-out of a rubber layer, whitish color, an indistinct structure of a cord).
5. Strong wear of teeths (a final stage). Wear of a cord on the loaded party of teeths to an exposure of a rubber layer (reduction of width of teeths).
6. Cracks in the basis of teeths.
7. Separation of teeths.
8. Strong wear of edges of a belt (the serviceable belt should have accurately cut off edges).
9. Cracks on belt edges.
Check of a technical condition of gear pulleys and tension roller
Check gear pulleys of distributive and cranked shaft, a tension roller on existence of excessive wear, cracks or damages. If necessary replace defective details.

Fig. 2.61. Check of ease and smoothness of rotation of a tension roller


Check ease and smoothness of rotation of a tension roller (fig. 2.61) , be convinced of absence люфта and extraneous noise.
If necessary replace a roller.
Assembly of a drive of a camshaft

Fig. 2.62. Installation of a flange and gear pulley of a cranked shaft of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l: 1–cranked shaft; 2–gear pulley of a cranked shaft


Fig. 2.63. Installation of a flange and gear pulley of a cranked shaft of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l: 1–facet; 2–cranked shaft; 3–flange; 4–gear pulley of a cranked shaft; 5–special washer


Establish a flange and a gear pulley of a cranked shaft, as is shown in fig. 2.62 and 2.63 . Pay special attention to their mutual situation at installation.
Moment of an inhaling of a bolt of fastening of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft, N · м:
engines in working volume of 1,3 l..... 140–150
engines in working volume of 1,1 l..... 70–100

Fig. 2.64. Installation of a gear pulley of a camshaft of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l: And, In – adjusting labels


Fig. 2.65. Installation of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l (on выноске – adjusting labels)


Fig. 2.66. Installation of a gear pulley of a camshaft of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l


Fig. 2.67. Installation of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l


Establish a gear pulley of a camshaft (fig. 2.64, 2.65, 2.66, 2.67) and tighten a bolt of fastening the specified moment.
The moment of an inhaling of a bolt of fastening of a gear pulley of a camshaft of engines in working volume of 1,3 and 1,1 l makes 80–100 N · m.
At position of the piston of the 1st cylinder in VMT of the end of a step of compression be convinced of combination of labels on gear pulleys of distributive and cranked shaft with adjusting labels on the engine.

       NOTE
At installation of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft track that the pin of a gear pulley entered into a small opening of a flange of a shaft.

Take away a tension roller of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism as it is possible closer to the pump of cooling liquid and tighten a bolt of its fastening.

Fig. 2.68. Installation of a spring of a tension roller of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l


Fig. 2.69. Installation of a spring of a tension roller of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l


Get the end of a spring of a tension roller in an opening of an arm of a roller and by means of a screw-driver get other end of a spring for a forward cover of the block of cylinders (fig. 2.68 and 2.69) .

       NOTE
Gear belt establish so that its leading branch was a little weakened.

PREVENTION
When laying a gear belt the provision of distributive, cranked or intermediate shaft should not change. Otherwise there can be serious damages of the engine or it will cease to give the maximum capacity. After a tension of a gear belt once again check the provision of distributive, intermediate shaft and a belt pulley: if the label on gear to a pulley of a camshaft coincides with a label on a head of the block of cylinders, at the same time should coincide a label on a pulley of a cranked shaft and a label on the block of cylinders. Otherwise it is necessary to repeat installation of a gear pulley of a camshaft and a pulley of a cranked shaft at the removed gear belt.
Densely put on a gear belt pulleys in the following order:
– pulley of a cranked shaft;
– camshaft pulley;
– tension roller.

After that create a tension of a leading branch of a belt, having turned a gear pulley of a camshaft in the direction, the return to the normal direction of rotation; check combination of adjusting labels.
Release a spring of a tension roller, having weakened an inhaling of a bolt of its fastening.
Turn a camshaft in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise if to look from a forward end face of the engine) at two teeth of a gear pulley (on 15 °).
Make additional effort a tension roller in the normal direction of rotation (to provide a dense prileganiye of teeths of a belt to teeths of pulleys without a gap).
Having convinced of density of a prileganiye of a belt, tighten a bolt of fastening of a tension roller in this situation so that its spring had possibility to move.
Turn a gear pulley of a cranked shaft on two-four turns counter-clockwise for ensuring dense landing of a belt on pulleys.

Fig. 2.70. Check of a tension of a gear belt of the engine in working volume of 1,3 l


Check a tension of a gear belt. For this purpose undertake a hand a tension roller and with moderate effort (about 5 N) compress a tension branch of a belt (fig. 2.70) . Thus teeths of a belt should reach approximately a half of radius of a head of a bolt of fastening of the tension device (on head sides) (engines in working volume of 1,3 l).

Fig. 2.71. Scheme of check of a tension of a gear belt of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l


Be convinced that by pressing an average part of a leading branch of a belt big and index fingers the distance between a reverse side of a belt and the opening center under a bolt of fastening of a cover of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism in the block of cylinders makes about 20 mm (engines in working volume of 1,1 l) (fig. 2.71) . Check of a tension of a belt see on fig. 2.72 .

Fig. 2.72. Check of a tension of a gear belt of the engine in working volume of 1,1 l


Establish a cover of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism.
Establish a pulley of a cranked shaft.
Establish a belt of a drive of the compressor of the conditioner and adjust a belt tension.
Establish a pulley of the pump of cooling liquid.
Establish poliklinovy a belt of a drive of auxiliary units and adjust its tension.

Cars with engines in working volume of 1,5 and 1,6 l 


Fig. 2.73. Camshaft drive


The drive of a camshaft of engines in working volume of 1,5 and 1,6 l is shown on fig. 2.73 .
Dismantling of a drive of a camshaft

Fig. 2.74. A jack installation site under the engine


Raise the car engine a jack (fig. 2.74) .

Fig. 2.75. Removal of an arm of an engine mount


Having unscrewed a bolt of fastening of an arm to the block of cylinders of the engine and three nuts of fastening of an arm, remove an engine mount arm (fig. 2.75) .
Unscrew a bolt of fastening of a pulley of the pump of cooling liquid.
Unscrew a bolt generator fastening.
Remove a pulley of the pump of cooling liquid and a drive belt.
Remove a pulley of a cranked shaft.

Fig. 2.76. Cover of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism of the engine


Uncover a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism (fig. 2.76) .

Fig. 2.77. Shift of a tension roller of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism to the pump of cooling liquid


Displace a tension roller of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism in the direction to the pump of cooling liquid and temporarily fix it in this situation (fig. 2.77) .
Remove a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism.

PREVENTION
If the belt which was in operation is established, surely it is necessary to consider the direction of its rotation. Belt installation for work "in the opposite direction" can lead to its gap and thereof to serious damages of the engine.

       NOTE
Fig. 2.78. Shooters specify the direction of rotation of a gear belt

If the belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism is supposed to be used again, put on it a label of the direction of rotation in the form of an arrow (fig. 2.78) to establish it in former situation.



Remove a belt from a gear pulley of a camshaft.
Remove a gear pulley of a camshaft.
Unscrew bolts of fastening of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft. Remove a gear pulley of a cranked shaft and a flange.

Fig. 2.79. Tension roller of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism


Remove a tension roller of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism (fig. 2.79) .
Check of a technical condition of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism
Check a belt on a zamaslivaniye and pollution by a dust. If necessary replace a belt. An insignificant zamaslivaniye or pollution by a dust remove with a dry fabric or paper. Solvents to cleaning do not apply.
At repair of the engine or adjustment of a tension of a belt carefully check a belt condition. Replace a belt new in the presence of at least one of specified below defects.
1. Hardening of an external surface of a belt (the external surface of a belt glossy, not elastic also hardened to such an extent that from pressing a nail does not remain dents).
2. Cracks on an external surface of a belt.
3. On an internal surface of a belt of a crack or break of teeths.
4. Strong wear of teeths (an initial stage). Wear of the loaded party of teeths (a razlokhmachivaniye of threads of a cord, a wear-out of a rubber layer, whitish color, an indistinct structure of a cord).
5. Strong wear of teeths (a final stage) Wear of a cord on the loaded party of teeths to an exposure of a rubber layer (reduction of width of teeths).
6. Cracks in the basis of teeths.
7. Separation of teeths.
8. Strong wear of edges of a belt (the serviceable belt should have accurately cut off edges).
9. Cracks on belt edges.
Check of a technical condition of gear pulleys, tension and bypass rollers
Check gear pulleys of distributive and cranked shaft, tension and bypass rollers on existence of excessive wear, cracks or damages.
If necessary replace defective details.

Fig. 2.80. Check of ease and smoothness of rotation of tension and bypass rollers


Check ease and smoothness of rotation of tension and bypass rollers (fig. 2.80) , be convinced of absence люфта and extraneous noise.
If necessary replace rollers.
Replace rollers in the presence of traces of leakage of greasing from bearings.
Assembly of a drive of a camshaft

Fig. 2.81. Installation of a flange and gear pulley of a cranked shaft: 1–facet; 2–cranked shaft; 3–flange; 4–gear pulley of a cranked shaft; 5–special washer


Establish a flange and a gear pulley of a cranked shaft, as is shown in fig. 2.81 . At installation pay special attention to their mutual situation.
Establish a gear pulley of a camshaft and tighten a bolt of its fastening the moment of 80-100 N · m.
Establish bypass a roller and tighten a bolt of its fastening the moment of 43-55 N · m.

Fig. 2.82. Installation of a gear pulley of a camshaft: And, In – adjusting labels


Combine a label And on gear to a camshaft pulley with a label In on a cover of the bearing of a shaft (fig. 2.82) .

Fig. 2.83. Installation of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft (on выноске adjusting labels are shown)


After that establish the piston of the 1st cylinder in VMT of the end of a step of compression and combine a label on gear to a pulley of a cranked shaft with a label on a forward cover of the block of cylinders, as is shown in fig. 2.83 .

Fig. 2.84. Installation of a spring of a tension roller


Establish a tension roller, springs (fig. 2.84) and the remote plug, temporarily tighten fastening bolts. Then tighten a bolt with a washer in an oval opening of an arm of a tension roller.

Fig. 2.85. Installation of the bottom end of a spring of a tension roller


Get the bottom end of a spring for a forward cover of the block of cylinders, as is shown in fig. 2.85 .
Fix a tension roller in this situation (displaced to the pump of cooling liquid).
Establish a gear belt on a pulley of a cranked shaft.

Fig. 2.86. Installation of a gear belt: 1–gear pulley of a cranked shaft; 2–bypass roller; 3–gear pulley of a camshaft; 4–tension roller


PREVENTION
Fig. 2.87. Check of a tension of a gear belt

When laying a gear belt the provision of distributive, cranked or intermediate shaft should not change. Otherwise there can be serious damages of the engine or it will cease to give the maximum capacity. After a tension of a gear belt once again check the provision of distributive, intermediate shaft and a belt pulley: if the label on gear to a pulley of a camshaft coincides with a label on a head of the block of cylinders, at the same time should coincide a label on a pulley of a cranked shaft and a label on the block of cylinders (fig. 2.87) . Otherwise it is necessary to repeat installation of a gear pulley of a camshaft and a pulley of a cranked shaft at the removed gear belt.



Establish a gear belt on a camshaft pulley. After belt installation on a pulley of a camshaft be convinced of a tension of a leading branch of a belt. Then, turning a camshaft pulley in the opposite direction, be convinced that the tension branch stretches and all adjusting labels are combined.
Tighten bolts of fastening of the tension device.
Turn a cranked shaft on two turnovers of the rotation direction (clockwise) so that to establish the piston of the 1st cylinder in VMT of the end of a step of compression, thus labels on gear to a pulley and a cover of bearings of a camshaft should be combined.
Moment of an inhaling of a bolt of fastening of a tension roller of 20-27 N · m.
Check a belt tension (fig. 2.87) . For this purpose, having undertaken a hand a tension roller with moderate effort (about 50 N), press to it a leading branch of a belt. Teeths of a belt should reach approximately a half of radius of a head of a bolt of fastening of a tension roller (on head sides).
Establish a cover of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism.
Moment of an inhaling of bolts of fastening of a cover of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism of 8-10 N · m.
Establish a pulley of a cranked shaft, watching that the pin of a gear pulley of a cranked shaft entered into an opening of a pulley of a cranked shaft.
Moment of an inhaling of a bolt of fastening of a pulley of a cranked shaft of 140-150 N · m.
Establish a belt of a drive of the fan of system of cooling and adjust a belt tension.
Establish a pulley of the pump of cooling liquid.

Fig. 2.88. Belt of a drive of auxiliary units of the engine


Establish poliklinovy a belt of a drive of auxiliary units (fig. 2.88) and adjust its tension.

Check of a technical condition
Camshaft
Surfaces of basic necks of a camshaft and cams should be well polished and without damages. If on surfaces of necks there are traces of jamming or deep risks, it is necessary to replace a shaft.
Establish a camshaft extreme necks on two prisms placed on a testing plate, and measure the indicator of hour type radial palpation of basic necks. Radial palpation should not exceed 0,02 mm.
Cases of bearings of a camshaft should not have cracks. On basic surfaces of bearings under necks of a camshaft teases and scratches are not allowed.
Check a gap between necks of a camshaft and openings of support. The gap decides by calculation after a measurement of necks and openings in support on a head of the block of cylinders on the established cases of bearings.
For definition of a gap it is possible to use the special calibrated plastic wire. For this purpose execute the following:
– carefully clear necks of a camshaft and basic surfaces of a head of the block of cylinders and cases of bearings;
– remove pushers of valves;
– lay a camshaft in support of a head of the block of cylinders and place on shaft necks pieces of a plastic wire;
– establish cases of bearings and tighten nuts of their fastening in two steps the moment of 20 N · m;
– remove cases of bearings and depending on size of flattening of a wire on a scale put on packing of a wire, define a gap.
Forward epiploon of a camshaft
Check working edges of an epiploon on wear existence. At wear of working edges replace an epiploon.
Check the surface of a camshaft interfaced to working edges of an epiploon. At existence on this surface of steps of wear replace a camshaft.
Gear belt
The surface of a gear part of a belt should have an accurate profile of teeths. On teeths there should not be a wear, folds, cracks, having cut and otsloyeniye of fibers of a fabric from rubber.
On any surfaces of a belt there should not be traces of hit of engine oil.
On face surfaces of a belt there should not be a stratification or a razlokhmachivaniye; the insignificant vystupaniye of a fringe of a fabric basis of a belt is allowed, however.
The surface of an external flat part of a belt should be equal, without cambers, folds, cracks and deepenings.

Useful data and councils
Gear belt of a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
Today gear belts found «the second breath». Practically all automakers equip the cars with an elastic drive. German designers went further away. They widely apply a double gear belt (Duplex) as reliable connection of a camshaft with the krivoshipno-shatunny mechanism.
The gear belt has a number of advantages before a driving chain. The last it is obvious more expensively. To make a belt it is much simpler, than a chain. In essence the gear belt is the closed tape from the maslobenzostoyky rubber, reinforced by a kapron cord with privulkanizirovanny teeths to it. If to compare a belt to a chain, comparison will appear not in favor of the last. The belt is much easier than a chain that, naturally, should affect mass of the engine. Besides, the engine supplied with a belt, is much more silent than the colleague equipped with a chain. Also "elastic band" out of an engine casing that affects time of its installation or replacement is mounted. For example, on replacement of a belt of a drive of the gas-distributing mechanism of the four-cylinder vosmiklapanny engine with the subsequent its installation on labels about 25-30 minutes leave. With a chain such focus will not pass.
At the correct service the gear belt goes long. Domestic producers, we will remind, give a guarantee on run of 60 thousand km, foreign – and that it is more. Rover managed to remove term of replacement of a belt to 160 thousand km of run.
In what the correct service of a belt drive consists? Not less often than each 15–30 thousand km should be checked a belt tension. However it does not mean that it is necessary to unbend only a casing and to check, whether on a place a belt. It is best of all to examine it, having removed from the engine. Sometimes it is difficult to notice that one of teeths is cut. If it already occurred, be sure that long he will not stretch. Therefore, having removed a belt, make on it a mark chalk, and further tooth behind tooth examine it. After installation it is also necessary to check the provision of directing and tension rollers. All these elements should be in one plane, otherwise the belt will work with a distortion that considerably will reduce its resource.
Important factor for belt work – absence on its surface of oil. Whatever there was a maslobenzostoyky rubber from which the belt is executed, nevertheless it not that case when «porridge oil you will not spoil». Here oil just to the detriment. Therefore it is periodically necessary to pay attention to a condition of epiploons of distributive and cranked shaft. And if you noticed an oil leak, try to eliminate it somewhat quicker. As practice shows, stay of a belt in oil cuts its resource by half, and even three times.
If this control to ignore, consequences will not keep itself waiting long. Through 40–50 thousand km at the expense of a belt pulling its tension will weaken and it will start to "whip". As a result of it the "heavy" camshaft rotates not synchronously with cranked shaft, and with backlog. This "asynchronous" work leads to even bigger weakening of a tension of a belt. As a result there is an excessive load of teeths.
Break of several teeths in a row can lead to that once the camshaft remains motionless whereas the cranked shaft will rotate. During this moment open valves of cylinders "will meet" pistons. Result – breakage of a core or the valve bend, the broken directing plugs, camshaft breakage. Is, however, and exceptions when break passes almost without serious consequences. However such it is possible only on those cars in which engines pro-points in pistons specially are for such a case executed. Our VAZs, namely cars, for example, treat them VAZ-2105 with the engine of 1300 cm 3 and VAZ-2108 with the engine of 1500 cm 3 .
In most cases break of a belt manages to the owner of the car in the round sum connected with capital repairs of the engine. For example, belt cost for the engine of the BMW car makes $40, repair of the engine will cost $2500. The belt for VAZ "nine" can be bought for $25. And here repair of the motor will pull for $400.
Valves
It is possible to reanimate any "tired" car. However technical difficulties are thus great. Without spare parts, machines, the welding equipment and other technological support here not to manage. The main thing – factory repair manuals (and they are available now) speak nothing about possible alternative decisions, especially about a choice problem among details, materials and tools which are in the domestic market. Such is a circle of questions in which both the loner enthusiast, and mechanics of small automobile repair shop lack information.
Sooner or later any engine becomes a source of troubles: глохнет in a way, it does not want to be started up in the mornings, pulls worse, "eats" superfluous fuel and oil. It is quite probable that the reason of his whimsical behavior is plain: to clean the carburetor or nozzles of system of injection enough, to adjust ignition and to replace maslosjemny caps that everything entered into norm. But happens that traditional approaches do not help restoration of operability of the engine, and at measurements of a compression it becomes clear that in one or several cylinders it is lower than the admissible.
Then first of all specify nature of malfunction: wear of tsilindroporshnevy group, a podgoraniye of plates or wear of cores and directing plugs of valves. The equipment of diagnosing is rather simple and described in many grants on repair of engines.
After that decide on repair. Here only it is necessary to take itself for a rule to be
far away from any miracle liquids. The effect in principle is possible, but is reached seldom; usual result – superfluous expenses and efforts. It is better to be guided by high-grade repair procedure at once.
To find a workshop where treat engines, today it is already simple, and not only in the large cities. But here is how there work and what its quality is organized? Life shows that at all importance of experience and qualification of employees good results of work without the special equipment and equipment are unattainable, and in this plan the disorder of technical armament of our service stations and mechanics is alas great. And if told concerned generally the motorist-ekspluatatsionnika above, further it is addressed not so much to it, how many to the mechanic, after all it will be a question of technology.
In cases when results of diagnostics indicate malfunction of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye, the head of the block of cylinders should be removed. The first that it is necessary to make after removal, dismantling and the general survey, – to estimate gaps between cores of valves and directing plugs. If they more maximum permissible, replace valves with the new. But when this vague measure is insufficient, it is necessary to replace and plugs.
For a small workshop such work presents already known difficulties: pig-iron plugs press in the aluminum case with a tightness. Thus to avoid microcracks and a smyatiya, it is necessary to cool plugs previously in liquid nitrogen (which temperature of-196 °C), and a head of the block to heat up to 160–170 °C (when heating to more high temperature there can be harmful consequences). All this is quite difficult, labor-consuming and is often simply impracticable in semi-handicraft conditions. Therefore in rare workshops do not deviate the conditions ordered by the repair manual that directly pours out in loss of quality of landing and distortion of geometry of connection. It then correct, processing «in a place» saddles of valves, and valves long and tiresomely grind in.
But today there is also other technique, extremely profitable both on labor input, and on an investment of means which thus guarantees high-quality results. It is based on use of the original and almost unknown tool in our practice of the American company Neway.
With its help restoration of worn-out directing plugs is carried out on a place without a vypressovka. Special knifes rollers cause plastic deformation of metal, compensating wear of an internal surface of the plug, at the same time forming in it a spiral fillet which improves conditions of greasing of a core of the valve, and also serves as the peculiar labirintny consolidation facilitating work to maslosjemny caps.
Five knifes and set of development enter into a set for finishing processing of the plug. It is characteristic that all operations with the Neway tool are conducted manually and are not connected with power supply or receiving from the outside of other type of energy.
Now about saddles of valves. At traditional methods of their processing directing sharoshka or a vertical drill freely rotates in the valve plug. Mills of Neway have a motionless axis which is densely fixed already in the restored plug by a being self-established broad tsangovy clip. A mill put on an axis with a precision gap of 0,5 microns that provides the minimum admission of processing. Neway mills at the expense of unique sharpening and a form of cutting edges form a special microrelief of the comb type on a surface of a saddle of the valve: extra earnings of the valve and a saddle passes quickly and effectively, and need for grinding in disappears. Their productivity is high: any facet on a saddle of the valve turns out for 3–4 turns of the tool.
The last stage – restoration of working facets of valves. For this operation the Neway firm offers the special Tizmatik-2 tool. The valve motionlessly fix in the special adaptation which, in turn, establish in a usual metalwork vice. Enough several turns of a mill (axial giving is provided with the microlift) to receive an ideal concentric surface of the valve. Let's notice that on its working surface, as well as when processing saddle, the special microrelief also is formed.
Here, actually, and all. It is necessary to wash out and grease only all details then it is possible to collect a head.
And grinding in? Let's remind once again: at work as the Neway tool in this tiresome, long and tiresome operation there is no need. After pair processing "valve saddle" interface of both details occurs on very narrow corbel, practically on the line.
It is reached small (to 1 °) by a divergence of corners of processing of working surfaces of a saddle and the valve (between them the so-called interferential corner is formed). In the first seconds of operation of the engine the area of interface increases for the account a smyatiya of superficial ledges of the created microrelief on facets, and then there are necessary 100 %-noye consolidation.
At cost of a set of equipment about $400 (depending on a complete set) Neway can pay off in the first month of work, and at repair of engines of foreign cars – besides to bring in the appreciable income.