Tension in system of electric equipment of Hyundai cars makes 12 V.Elektrooborudovaniye is executed according to the single-wire scheme — negative conclusions of sources and consumers of the electric power are connected to a body of the car which carries out function of the second wire – "weight". A food of all electric devices is carried out from the battery of lead-acid type recharged from the generator of an alternating current.
In the present section service and repair of some elements of system of onboard electric equipment are described. Besides, diagnostics of malfunctions of electric equipment is considered.
Security measures at work with electric equipment
At repair of electric equipment and a power supply system of the engine disconnect a wire from the plug «–» the storage battery.
At replacement of safety locks it is forbidden to apply screw-drivers and the metal tool as it can lead to short circuit in electric equipment chains.
It is forbidden to disconnect the switchboard of ignition and the storage battery on the working engine as thereof the regulator of tension and elements of the electronic equipment of the car can fail.
At check of chains of electric equipment it is forbidden to close on "mass" of a wire (to check serviceability of chains «on a spark») in order to avoid failure of elements of electric equipment.
It is forbidden even to connect quickly a conclusion «30» generators to "weight" (to check operation of the generator «on a spark») as it will lead to failure of diodes of the vypryamitelny block of the generator. To check the generator on the car it is possible only the voltmeter and the ampermeter. In order to avoid failure of diodes of the vypryamitelny block it is forbidden to check their megommetry or the control lamp fed by tension more than 12 In, and also to check such devices of a chain of electric equipment on the car without a detachment of wires from the generator. To check resistance of isolation of a winding of a stator of the generator the increased tension it is necessary on the generator which has been removed from the car, at the conclusions of a winding of a stator disconnected from the vypryamitelny block.
At carrying out electrowelding works on the car it is necessary to disconnect wires from plugs of the storage battery and generator conclusions.
Do not concern elements of system of ignition and high-voltage wires at the working engine.
Do not lay a wire of a low and high voltage in one plait.
At additional charge by means of the charger of the storage battery on the car disconnect wires from battery plugs.
Diagnostics of malfunctions of onboard electric equipment
The structure of a typical electric chain can include the basic electric element, various switches, the relay, electromotors, safety locks, fusible inserts or the breakers of a chain relating to this element, and also conducting and the contact sockets serving for connection of a basic element with the storage battery and "mass" of a body. For simplification of search of malfunctions of electric chains schematic electric circuits and schemes of electric connections are given in the management.
Before starting works on elimination of malfunctions in any electric chain, attentively study the corresponding scheme as much as possible to be clear in the mind about its functional purpose. The circle of troubleshooting is usually narrowed at the expense of gradual definition and an exception of normally functioning elements of the same contour. At simultaneous failure at once several elements or contours the most probable cause of refusal is the peregoraniye of the corresponding safety lock or grounding violation (different chains in many cases can become isolated on one safety lock or a grounding conclusion).
Electric equipment refusals often speak the elementary reasons, such as corrosion of contacts of sockets, safety lock failure, a peregoraniye of a fusible insert or relay damage. Carry out visual check of a condition of all safety locks, conducting and contact sockets of a chain before starting more concrete check of serviceability of its components.
In case of application for troubleshooting of diagnostic devices carefully plan (according to enclosed electric circuits), in
what points of a contour and in what sequence it is necessary to connect the device for the purpose of the most effective detection of malfunction.
The number of the main diagnostic devices includes a tester of electric chains or the voltmeter (the 12-volt control lamp with a set of connecting wires can be used also), the break indicator the chains (sampler), including a lamp, own power supply and a set of connecting wires. Besides, always it is necessary to have in the car a set of wires for engine start-up from an extraneous source (the storage battery of other car), equipped with clips of the crocodile type and it is desirable the breaker of an electric chain which can be applied to shunting and connection of various elements of electric equipment at chain diagnostics. As it was already mentioned before starting chain check by means of the diagnostic equipment, determine by schemes of a place of its connection.
Stock-takings of supply voltage
are carried out in case of violation of an electric chain. Connect one of wires of a tester of electric chains or to the negative plug of the storage battery, or to well earthed point of a body of the car. Other wire of a tester connect to contact of the socket of the checked chain, preferably to the next to the storage battery or a safety lock. If the control lamp of a tester lights up, the supply voltage on this piece of a chain is that confirms serviceability of a chain between this point of a chain and the storage battery. Operating in the same way, investigate the chain rest. Detection of violation of supply voltage testifies to malfunction existence between this point of a chain and the last from checked earlier (where there was a supply voltage). In most cases the cause of failure consists in weakening of contact sockets and damage of contacts (oxidation).
Remember that some chains of onboard electric equipment receive a food only if the ignition key is in the situation "ASS" (parking) or «RUN» (movement).
Searches of a place of short circuit.
One of methods of search of short circuit is extraction of a safety lock and connection instead of it of a lamp sampler or the voltmeter. Tension in a chain should be absent. Pull conducting, watching a lamp sampler. If the lamp starts to blink — somewhere in this plait of wires there is a short circuit on "weight", probably, caused by a peretiraniye of isolation of wires. Similar check can be carried out for each of components of an electric chain by turning on of the corresponding switches.
Check of serviceability of grounding.
This check is carried out for determination of reliability of grounding of an element of a chain. Disconnect the storage battery and connect one of wires of the lampyprobnik, having the independent power supply, to the obviously well earthed point. Other wire of a lamp connect to a checked plait of wires or socket contact. If the lamp lights up, grounding as it should be (and on the contrary).
Check on absence of break
is carried out for detection of breaks of an electric chain. After shutdown of a food of a contour check it by means of a lamp sampler with the independent power supply. Connect sampler wires by both ends of a chain. If the control lamp lights up, break in a chain is not present. If the lamp does not light up, it testifies to existence in a break chain. Similarly it is possible to check and serviceability of the switch, having connected a sampler to its contacts. At transfer of the switch to the situation "Incl." the lamp of a sampler should light up.
Localization of a place of break.
At diagnostics of the suspect on existence of break of a site of an electric chain visually to find a cause of defect it appears quite difficult as survey of plugs on existence of corrosion or violation of quality of their contacts is complicated because of limited access to them (usually plugs are closed by the case of the contact socket). Sharp twitching of the case of the socket on the sensor or a plait of its wires in many cases leads to contact restoration. Do not forget about it in attempts of localization of a cause of failure of the suspect on existence of break of a chain. Unstably arising refusals can be a consequence of oxidation of plugs or violations of quality of contacts.
Diagnostics of malfunctions of electric chains does not represent a difficult task under condition of a clear idea of that the electric current arrives to all consumers (a lamp, the electromotor, etc.) from the storage battery on wires via switches, the relay, safety locks, fusible inserts, and then comes back to the battery through "mass" of a body of the car. Any problems connected with refusal of electric equipment, can be caused by interruption of supply on them an electric current from the battery or return of a current to the battery.
Wires, safety locks and relay
Protection of electric chains of the car against short circuit is provided with application of safety locks, breakers of chains and fusible inserts. The burned-down safety lock is easy for distinguishing from serviceable by survey of its transparent plastic case. Attentively examine a safety lock. If the safety lock outwardly looks normally, but suspicions on its malfunction remained, check conductivity between the contacts of knife type acting from its case.
At replacement of safety locks watch compliance of face value of a new safety lock to face value of the old. The safety locks calculated on a various current can look outwardly equally therefore it is necessary to give special attention to marking. Replacement of the burned-down safety lock on calculated on smaller, and especially on big, a current is undesirable. Each electric chain needs different extent of protection. Watch that marking on the case of a safety lock corresponded to a current on which it is calculated
corresponding chain. If the replaced safety lock immediately fuses, it is unreasonable to continue its replacement. First of all it is necessary to define and eliminate the reason of its peregoraniye. In most cases that appears short circuit in the electric chain, caused by break or damage of isolation of a wire.
Protection of some electric chains is carried out by inclusion in them fusible inserts. Usually inserts are used for protection of the chains which have not been equipped with safety locks, such as a chain of system of ignition.
Fusible inserts are similar to safety locks in the sense that their exit out of operation (oplavleniye) easily is defined visually.
For replacement of a fusible insert disconnect a wire from the negative plug of the storage battery. Take burned-down insert and establish on its place the new. Before insert replacement surely try to define the reason of the overload which has caused an exit of an insert out of operation.
Chain breakers (thermal relays)
Thermal relays serve for protection of such elements, as electric drives of window regulators, locks of doors and the electroproof-reader. Some of breakers of chains are established in the assembly block. Return of thermal relays to an initial condition on some models is carried out automatically, i.e. at overload emergence in a chain the thermal relay is instantly disconnected, then after cooling reverts to the original state. If contour return into position does not occur, it is necessary to check it immediately. Normal functioning of the thermal relay confirms serviceability of a contour. Some of breakers are equipped with buttons for compulsory return to an initial condition manually.
Replacement of safety locks
For prevention of short circuit and overloads of consumers of the electric power separate contours are protected by safety locks. On Hyundai cars safety locks with contacts of the knife type, corresponding to the last technical achievements are used.
Before safety lock replacement at first surely disconnect the corresponding consumer.
Hook a cover of the block of safety locks a narrow screw-driver and remove it.
The fused safety lock is determined by the melted metal strip. The arrangement of safety locks is shown on inside of a cover of the block of safety locks.
Take out a faulty safety lock the plastic tweezers being in a cover of the block of safety locks.
Insert a new safety lock of the same face value (current).
If again inserted safety lock fuses through short time, check the corresponding electric chain.
At all do not replace a safety lock with a wire or similar supportive applications ("bugs") as because of it in system of electric equipment of the car there can be serious damages.
It is recommended to have always in the car a set of spare safety locks of different face value. For their storage in the block of safety locks the corresponding place is provided.
The current on which the safety lock is calculated, is put on a reverse side of its case. Besides, the case is painted in the corresponding color by which it is possible to determine a nominal current (tab. 7.1).
Close a cover of the block of safety locks.
Compliance of color of a safety lock to a nominal current
Nominal current, And
The dark blue
For giving of an electric current to some elements of electric equipment of the car relays are used. Violation of serviceability of the relay leads to refusal of an element served by it. In case of suspicion emergence on malfunction any of the relay check it at service station or in a specialized repair truck. Replacement of the failed relay is carried out assembled.
Installation of additional electric equipment
When drilling openings in a body from their edges it is necessary to remove agnails, it is necessary to ground and paint edges. It is necessary to remove the shaving which was formed at drilling from a body. At all works concerning electric equipment, in order to avoid short circuit it is necessary to disconnect a "weight" cable from the storage battery.
At shutdown of the storage battery information from memory of the electronic control unit of the engine and a transmission, anti-blocking system and other electric devices, for example a radio receiver and hours is erased.
The cables established at installation of additional electric equipment, whenever possible it is necessary to lay along plaits of wires and to fix by means of cable collars and rubber plugs.
If it is required, it is necessary to fix in addition sticky wires in order to avoid emergence of noise of an electromagnetic origin and a friction a tape, cable couplers or similar fastenings. It is necessary to consider that between brake pipelines and rigidly laid electric wires there should be a distance not less than 10 mm, between brake pipelines and the electric wires connected to the engine or other elements of the car, – not less than 25 mm.
At installation of additional electric equipment check, whether the stock of capacity of the generator is sufficient. If it is required, establish the generator of bigger capacity.